Displaying items by tag: Dogs and cats
Among several environmental factors, exposure to antimicrobials has been in the spotlight as a cause of profound and long-term disturbance of the intestinal microbiota. Antimicrobial-induced dysbiosis is a general term and includes decreases in microbial richness and diversity, loss of beneficial bacterial groups, blooms of intestinal pathogens and alterations in the metabolic functions and end-products of the microbiota. Mounting evidence from human and experimental animal studies suggest an association between antimicrobial-induced dysbiosis and susceptibility to gastrointestinal, metabolic, endocrine, immune and neuropsychiatric diseases. These associations are commonly stronger after early life exposure to antimicrobials, a period during which maturation of the microbiota and immune system take place in parallel. In addition, these associations commonly become stronger as the number of antimicrobial courses increases. The repeatability of these findings among different studies as well as the presence of a dose-dependent relationship between antimicrobial exposure and disease development collectively require careful consideration of the need for antimicrobial use. There are limited studies are available in dogs and cats regarding the long-term effects of antimicrobials on the microbiota and subsequent susceptibility to diseases.
This review discusses the effects of antimicrobials on the gastrointestinal microbiota and the most important associations between antimicrobial-induced dysbiosis and diseases in humans, dogs, and cats.
The aim of this study was to describe how veterinarians utilise and perform urinalyses for dogs and cats.
A survey, developed and distributed through the Veterinary Information Network, enlisted veterinarians who perform urinalyses for dogs and cats. Participants were directed to question banks based on whether urinalyses were performed in-house, by an outside diagnostic laboratory, or using an in-house automated instrument. Participants using multiple methods were directed to questions that related to the chosen methods.
In 2001 the molecular genetic basis of so-called "ivermectin sensitivity" in herding breed dogs was determined to be a P-glycoprotein deficiency caused by a genetic variant of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene often called "the MDR1 mutation." We have learned a great deal about P-glycoprotein's role in drug disposition since that discovery, namely that P-glycoprotein transports many more drugs than just macrocyclic lactones that P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport is present in more places than just the blood brain barrier, that some cats have a genetic variant of MDR1 that results in P-glycoprotein deficiency, that P-glycoprotein dysfunction can occur as a result of drug-drug interactions in any dog or cat, and that the concept of P-glycoprotein "inhibitors" versus P-glycoprotein substrates is somewhat arbitrary and artificial.
This paper will review these discoveries and discuss how they impact drug selection and dosing in dogs and cats with genetically mediated P-glycoprotein deficiency or P-glycoprotein dysfunction resulting from drug-drug interactions.
Dietary fiber describes a diverse assortment of nondigestible carbohydrates that play a vital role in the health of animals and maintenance of gastrointestinal tract homeostasis. The main roles dietary fiber play in the gastrointestinal tract include physically altering the digesta, modulating appetite and satiety, regulating digestion, and acting as a microbial energy source through fermentation. These functions can have widespread systemic effects. Fiber is a vital component of nearly all commercial canine and feline diets. Key features of fiber types, such as fermentability, solubility, and viscosity, have been shown to have clinical implications as well as health benefits in dogs and cats. Practitioners should know how to evaluate a diet for fiber content and the current knowledge on fiber supplementation as it relates to common enteropathies including acute diarrhea, chronic diarrhea, constipation, and hairball management. Understanding the fundamentals of dietary fiber allows the practicing clinician to use fiber optimally as a management modality.
“Dietary fiber aids in the management of canine and feline gastrointestinal disease” Adam A Moreno et al. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2022 Oct 26;1-13. doi: 10.2460/javma.22.08.0351.
The objective of this study was to describe a novel surgical technique for intestinal foreign body removal without enterotomy using a laparotomy-assisted endoscopic approach and compare short-term outcomes to enterotomy.
Medical records of dogs and cats with intestinal foreign bodies that underwent attempted treatment with a laparotomy-assisted endoscopic approach between June 2019 and July 2021 were extracted. The approach consisted in manoeuvring the intestinal foreign body into the stomach during laparotomy and then removing it via a gastroscopy. If the foreign body was unmovable, an enterotomy was performed.
The objective of this study was to characterize clinicopathologic factors and outcomes for dogs and cats with chronic small intestinal foreign body obstructions (CFBO).
Medical records of 72 dogs and cats diagnosed with CFBO between 2010 to 2020 were reviewed for duration of clinical signs, pre-surgical and intraoperative findings, complications, and outcomes. A chronic foreign body was defined as clinical signs, or the observation of foreign material ingestion, at least 7 days prior to presentation.
Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease that represents a serious public health problem, including in Sicily (Italy), which is considered an endemic area. In this study were collected canine, feline and human data from 2013 to 2021 in Sicily, while entomological surveys were conducted only in 2013 and 2021.
Result showed that 23,794/74,349 (34.4%) of dogs and 274/4774 (11.8%) of cats were positive in one or more diagnostic tests. A total of 467 cases of human Leishmaniasis were reported, with 71% showing cutaneous and 29% visceral involvement. The provinces with the largest number of patients were Agrigento (45.4%) and Palermo (37%). In 2013, Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the dominant sandfly species in Sicily (68.7%), followed by Phlebotomus perniciosus (17.2%) and Sergentomya minuta (14%). In 2021, Phlebotomusperfiliewi was confirmed as the most common species (61.6%), followed by Phlebotomusperniciosus (33.1%) and Sergentomyaminuta (4.7%). Of particular interest was the identification of Phlebotomus papatasi (0.41%) in Agrigento.