Michele Tumbarello Med Vet PhD student
With an intrinsically low ability for self-repair, articular cartilage injuries often progress to cartilage loss and joint degeneration resulting in osteoarthritis (OA). Osteoarthritis and the associated articular cartilage changes can be debilitating, resulting in lameness and functional disability both in human and equine patients. While articular cartilage damage plays a central role in the pathogenesis of OA, the contribution of other joint tissues to the pathogenesis of OA has increasingly been recognized thus prompting a whole organ approach for therapeutic strategies. Gene therapy methods have generated significant interest in OA therapy in recent years. These utilize viral or non-viral vectors to deliver therapeutic molecules directly into the joint space with the goal of reprogramming the cells' machinery to secrete high levels of the target protein at the site of injection.
Several viral vector-based approaches have demonstrated successful gene transfer with persistent therapeutic levels of transgene expression in the equine joint. As an experimental model, horses represent the pathology of human OA more accurately compared to other animal models. The anatomical and biomechanical similarities between equine and human joints also allow for the use of similar imaging and diagnostic methods as used in humans. In addition, horses experience naturally occurring OA and undergo similar therapies as human patients and, therefore, are a clinically relevant patient population.
Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) is the most common oral neoplasia in cats. This malignant tumor is locally invasive, has a high mortality rate, and its etiology is not yet known. In humans, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is associated with tobacco smoke, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus infection.
Herein, a critical review about the potential etiologic factors of FOSCC was performed, considering publications between 2000 and 2022, aiming to synthesize all available scientific evidence regarding this issue. Recommendations of the PRISMA statement and the Cochrane Collaboration were followed, and the PubMed database searched by using the MeSH terms MeSH terms "oral", "mouth", "lingual", "labial", "gingiva", "carcinoma", "squamous", and "feline". The selection process for eligible studies was based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and the quality of the studies assessed.
The treatment of canine chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) variants generally requires immunosuppression, which often results in potentially severe adverse effects. Janus kinase inhibitors, like oclacitinib, might be a valuable treatment option due to their rapid inhibition of the action of interferons known to be relevant in the pathogenesis of CCLE.
The aim of this study was to report the efficacy and safety of oral oclacitinib for the treatment of canine CCLE variants.
Trace minerals (TM) play an important role in cattle immunity, health and performance. Although TM are needed in small quantities, they are fundamental for enzymes involved in antioxidant protection against cellular damage and several pathways of the immune response. Cattle TM status results from the balance between TM dietary intake and their requirements. This paper reviews the research-based evidence of the effects of TM supplementation on immunity and its impact on beef cattle health.
Free-choice oral TM supplementation is a common practice in beef cattle production systems. However, there is a high variation in TM intake and thus TM status and bioavailability in animals receiving free-choice oral TM supplements. Strategic pulse-dose supplementation during critical points of beef cattle management provides a controlled amount of TM intended to remove such a variation. Adequate TM supplementation should not only satisfy the basal requirements but also provide a source of TM when there is a higher demand of the antioxidant systems or during the development of the immune response.
Pyometra is a common uterine disease of dogs and cats, typical of the luteal phase. Traditionally, ovariohysterectomy was considered the elective treatment for pyometra, but in some cases, such as breeding subjects or patients with a high anesthesiologic risk, medical treatment is preferred. Aglepristone is a progesterone receptor blocker and its use proved to be effective for the medical treatment of pyometra in bitches and queens. The aim of this work was to report the effectiveness, in the feline species, of a modified aglepristone administration protocol.
Five intact queens were referred to veterinary care centers for pyometra. Aglepristone (15 mg/kg) was administered at D0, D2, D5, and D8, as described by Contri and collaborators for dogs. An antibiotic treatment (marbofloxacin, 3 mg/kg) was associated, and uterine conditions were checked with regular ultrasonographic exams.
The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcome of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in the dog.
An ultrasound-guided mini lateral approach was made via a plane established between the sternocephalicus muscle and sternohyoideus muscles to expose the thyroid gland and enlarged parathyroid gland. Abnormal parathyroid glands were removed en bloc via partial thyroidectomy. The technique for bilateral disease was similar, the skin incision was made on midline and moved laterally to develop the above-mentioned plane of dissection. Age, sex, breed, bodyweight, ultrasound findings, histopathological diagnosis, surgical time, preoperative clinical signs, and clinical outcome were extracted from the records for descriptive statistics.
Buprenorphine is a common analgesic administered to rabbits and high concentration formulations can reduce handling stress without sacrificing pain relief. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of high concentration buprenorphine and its metabolites following multiple subcutaneous doses in the rabbit. Laboratory variables (complete blood cell count, biochemistry profile, urinalysis) were compared for drug effects and injection sites were evaluated via histopathology.
High concentration buprenorphine (HCB) was administered subcutaneously (0.24 mg/kg) to six, 17-week-old, intact female, New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for three doses, 24 hours apart. Two control animals received an equal volume of saline. Blood samples were collected at -72, 0, 0.33, 0.66, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours. Buprenorphine and its metabolites were measured via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Blood and urine profiles were collected prior to and following HCB administration and compared within and between groups. Injection sites and major organ systems were evaluated grossly and microscopically for drug effects.
A large overlap in the ultrasound (US) features of focal pancreatic lesions (FPLs) in cats is reported. Furthermore, only a small number of studies describing the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of FPLs in cats have been conducted today. The aim of this study was to describe the B-mode US and CEUS features of FPLs in cats.
Ninety-eight cats cytologically diagnosed with FPL were included. The lesions were classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 40), lymphoma (n = 11), nodular hyperplasia (n = 17), other benign lesion (OBL) (n = 20), cyst (n = 4) or other malignant lesion (OML) (n = 6). Several qualitative and quantitative B-mode and CEUS features were described in each case. OMLs and cysts were not included in the statistical analysis.
Transient hypophosphatemia is often detected in humans following generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), and serum phosphorus concentration (sPi) serves as a marker to differentiate GTCS from syncope. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the usefulness of hypophosphatemia as a diagnostic marker for GTCS in dogs.
Eighty-seven and 26 client-owned dogs with GTCS or syncope, respectively, were enrolled. Dogs were included if the episode occurred ≤ 3h from presentation, and if sPi and serum creatinine (sCr) were measured. Dogs were excluded if aged <1 year or if sCr exceeded 176.8 μmol/L.
Similar to human diabetes, equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) causes insulin dysregulation leading to debilitating sequela including laminitis. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EMS and laminitis are not well known. Therefore, using an insulin-resistant equine model, the authors hypothesized that insulin dysregulation induces an increased expression of inflammatory proteins in a tissue specific manner.
Two groups of horses (n = -5/group) were categorized as insulin-resistant (IR) or insulin-sensitive (IS), using a frequently sampled intra-venous glucose tolerance test. Biopsies from skeletal muscle, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected in both groups. Protein expression was quantified via Western blotting in order to investigate HSP90, α 2 macroglobulin (A2M), Fibrinogen α, β, γ isoforms as well as cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in muscle and adipose tissues.