Articles available: 88

CONTINUING SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION IN VETERINARY MEDICINE

Antonio Maria Tardo Med Vet PhD Student

Antonio Maria Tardo Med Vet PhD Student

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA         Despite the paucity of published literature on elasmobranch hematology and biochemistry, great interspecific diversity has been observed.

Blood samples from 43 undulate rays (Raja undulata) (23 males, 20 females) hatched and raised at Oceanogràfic Aquarium, were analyzed for hematology and plasma biochemistry. Animals were divided into two age groups: 1 yr old (28 skates) and 2 yr old (15 skates). All individuals were clinically healthy on physical examination. Weight, total length, standard length, and disc width were recorded.

dog urine sampleThe aim of this study was to describe how veterinarians utilise and perform urinalyses for dogs and cats.

A survey, developed and distributed through the Veterinary Information Network, enlisted veterinarians who perform urinalyses for dogs and cats. Participants were directed to question banks based on whether urinalyses were performed in-house, by an outside diagnostic laboratory, or using an in-house automated instrument. Participants using multiple methods were directed to questions that related to the chosen methods.

MRI gattoThis multicentric retrospective study describes the clinical and MRI features and pathological studies of spinal lymphoma in 27 cats. MRI characteristics and their possible correlations with histopathological findings were studied.

The most frequent neurological signs were rapidly progressive paraparesis (62.9%) or paraplegia (22.2%). Bimodal age distribution was found with 40.7% of cats aged ≤2.5 years (63.6% of them FeLV positive), and 44.4% of cats aged ≥8 years (16.7% of them FeLV positive). Spinal lymphoma was generally presented on MRI as an ill-defined epidural focal lesion with moderate to severe spinal cord compression, expanding more than one vertebral body. MRI lesions were typically localized in the lumbar vertebral segment (p = 0.01), circumferential to the spinal cord (p = 0.04), hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences (p = 4.3e-06), and isointense on T1-weighted sequences (p = 8.9e-07). The degree and pattern of contrast enhancement were variable. When follow-up MRI studies (n = 4) were performed after treatment new lesions of similar nature but different localizations and extension were observed. Antemortem diagnosis was achieved in 22/27 (81.5%) cats. The presence of necrosis in histopathological studies as an unfavorable prognostic indicator of survival was significantly more probable when lesions were not hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences (p = 0.017).

DawnTebbs Endurance Riding 1This study aimed to evaluate if exercise-induced acute phase response (APR) occurs in endurance horses in response to the race.

The study included 23 horses competing in an endurance competition with a successfully passed clinical examination before the race. Blood samples were collected before the start and within 30 min after the end of the race. Haematological and biochemical tests were performed and correlated to acute phase biomarkers changes.

Sunday, 13 November 2022 12:44

Canine and feline P-glycoprotein deficiency

image assetIn 2001 the molecular genetic basis of so-called "ivermectin sensitivity" in herding breed dogs was determined to be a P-glycoprotein deficiency caused by a genetic variant of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene often called "the MDR1 mutation." We have learned a great deal about P-glycoprotein's role in drug disposition since that discovery, namely that P-glycoprotein transports many more drugs than just macrocyclic lactones that P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport is present in more places than just the blood brain barrier, that some cats have a genetic variant of MDR1 that results in P-glycoprotein deficiency, that P-glycoprotein dysfunction can occur as a result of drug-drug interactions in any dog or cat, and that the concept of P-glycoprotein "inhibitors" versus P-glycoprotein substrates is somewhat arbitrary and artificial.

This paper will review these discoveries and discuss how they impact drug selection and dosing in dogs and cats with genetically mediated P-glycoprotein deficiency or P-glycoprotein dysfunction resulting from drug-drug interactions.

CatThe aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy for 2 smartwatches with oximetry technology and optical wrist heart rate (HR) or single-lead Electrocardiography (ECG) technology (Fenix 5X Plus [GF5xp], Garmin Ltd and Apple Watch 6 [AppW6], Apple Inc, respectively) versus reference methods (ECG and transmittance pulse oximetry [TPO], respectively) in measuring HR and peripheral oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2) in cats.

10 male client-owned cats aged 8 to 12 months and weighing 3.2 to 4.5 kg were included. All cats that were presented for elective castration at the Atatürk University Animal Hospital between March 10 and April 15, 2022, were considered for enrollment. Monitoring of HR and SpO2 during anesthesia was performed with a 3-lead ECG and transmittance pulse oximetry, respectively, connected to a multiparameter monitor (reference methods) along with a GF5xp and a AppW6. Agreement between reference methods and the smartwatches were assessed by the Bland-Altman plot.

investigating hypoglycaemia in dogs and catsThe most common pancreatic tumour in dogs is the insulinoma. Canine insulinomas are considered to be malignant in more than 95% of the cases because they almost always tend to metastasise. The diagnosis of an insulinoma requires the demonstration of the simultaneous occurrence of hypoglycaemia and blood insulin levels that are within or above the high end of the reference interval. The staging of canine insulinomas is preferably conducted by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. In general, surgical treatment is the most effective because of it results in long survival times, but many dogs also require medical treatment at some point. The prognosis of canine insulinomas is guarded as clinical hypoglycaemia almost always returns due to metastasis or tumour regrowth.

This review aims to provide a summary and update the current recommendations in the veterinary literature for the diagnosis, treatment and prognostication of canine insulinomas.

AFAST BovinoBovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the main cause of death in calves, and early BRD diagnosis saves lives. This study aimed to diagnose clinical and subclinical BRD in calves by assessing some biochemical alterations and ultrasonography (USG).

Fifty-four Holstein dairy calves in Al-Sharqiyah Province, Egypt, were used in the study. They were divided into three groups. The first control group consisted of 10 clinically healthy calves. The second group consisted of 34 calves suffering from clinical lower respiratory tract disorders. The third group consisted of 10 subclinical BRD-affected calves. Ultrasonographic examinations of chest and thoracic ultrasound scoring were performed once per 2 weeks for each calf. Blood samples were collected for serum separation to measure albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), globulin, and haptoglobin (HP).

Can Cats Get Sick From Eating Mice 1Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease, but feline leptospirosis is rarely reported. This study aimed at investigating Leptospira spp. prevalence in cats from southern Italy, evaluating risk factors, clinical findings and laboratory data associated with infection.

The serum of 112 cats was investigated by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), detecting anti-Leptospira antibodies against 14 pathogenic serovars. Blood and urine samples were tested by a real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira.

T1903E01slider 1Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne nematode, causing heartworm (HW) disease in wild and domestic canids. HW can also affect felids with different clinical patterns from asymptomatic pictures to sudden death, making the monitoring and diagnosis complicated. Canine HW is endemic in North-eastern Italy; however, very little information has been recorded for felids. This study aims to provide new information on HW in felids in North-eastern Italy.

Two hundred and six domestic cats from Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto-Adige regions (North-eastern Italy), nine captive felids from zoological parks from Veneto, and nineteen European wildcats from Friuli Venezia Giulia were recruited. Sera/plasma was analysed for the detection of anti-HW antibodies (Ab) and HW antigens (Ag); positive blood samples were molecularly analysed, targeting the HW DNA (5S-rRNA gene).

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