Articles available: 139


Antonio Maria Tardo Med Vet PhD Student

Antonio Maria Tardo Med Vet PhD Student

Wednesday, 04 January 2023 12:24

Reverse Sneezing in Dogs

reverse sneezingReverse sneezing (RS) is a frequent reason for veterinary consultation, but there is scarce clinical information. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics in a cohort of 30 dogs with RS.

Signalment, clinical features, results of diagnostic tests, final diagnosis, and evolution were retrospectively evaluated. Sex and neuter status were equally distributed into diagnosis categories. A significantly higher representation of toys (<5 kg, 50%) and small-sized dogs (5-15 kg, 27%), in comparison to medium (15-30 kg, 17%) and large-sized dogs (>30 kg, 7%), was found. RS was the main owner concern in many of the cases (67%). Many cases presented chronic RS (60%, >3 months), with more than one episode a week (60%). Most cases had an additional clinical respiratory sign (63%) and an unremarkable physical examination (63%). Inflammatory airway disorders were present in 57% of the cases, followed by anatomical-functional disorders (27%), and nasal/nasopharyngeal foreign bodies (10%). Two dogs (7%) remained as open diagnoses. Episodes of RS were persistent despite the treatment in 61% of the dogs with follow-up.

Wednesday, 04 January 2023 12:22

Temporal lobe epilepsy in cats

epilessia gattoIn recent years there has been increased attention to the proposed entity of feline temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Epileptic discharges in certain parts of the temporal lobe elicit very similar semiology, which justifies grouping these epilepsies under one name. Furthermore, feline TLE patients tend to have histopathological changes within the temporal lobe, usually in the hippocampus. The initial aetiology is likely to be different but may result in hippocampal necrosis and later hippocampal sclerosis. The aim of this article was not only to summarise the clinical features and the possible aetiology, but also being work to place TLE within the veterinary epilepsy classification.

Epilepsies in cats, similar to dogs, are classified based on the aetiology into idiopathic epilepsy, structural epilepsy and unknown cause. TLE seems to be outside of this classification, as it is not an aetiologic category, but a syndrome, associated with a topographic affiliation to a certain anatomical brain structure. Magnetic resonance imaging, histopathologic aspects and current medical therapeutic considerations will be summarised, and emerging surgical options are discussed.

imagesEquine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) is a tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum. In Germany, this pathogen is transmitted primarily by Ixodes ricinus. There is limited knowledge about its prevalence in horses in Germany. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the results of serological and molecular testing for A. phagocytophilum in horses which were done in a commercial laboratory in Germany over fourteen years. Additionally, risk factors were evaluated, and hematological abnormalities were addressed in horses with positive PCR results.

This retrospective study examined results of direct (Polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test [IFAT]) detection methods for A. phagocytophilum in horses on samples provided by German veterinarians and processed by the commercial laboratory LABOKLIN from 2008 to 2021. In horses with positive test results, a Complete Blood Count (CBC) and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were also analyzed where possible.

catetereThe aim of this study was to report the incidence and type of peripheral intravenous catheter complications in hospitalised dogs.

A prospective, observational trial was performed. Peripheral intravenous catheters were monitored for complications. Complications were documented and classified as extravasation, phlebitis, dislodgement, occlusion and line breakage. If phlebitis was present, the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Scale was used to assign a grade (0 to 5). Fisher's exact test was used to compare the type of complications between the critical care unit and the intermediate care unit. A univariate logistic model was used to compare the incidence of complications between the critical care unit and the intermediate care unit and adjusted odds ratios were used to compare the groups.

Monday, 05 December 2022 12:42

Juvenile hyperinsulinism in a kitten

iperinsulinismoA 5.5 month-old intact male Maine Coon cat was presented to a referral hospital for a history of muscle fasciculations, lethargy and seizures associated with refractory hypoglycemia. Diagnostic testing for hypothyroidism, hyposomatotropism or hypoadrenocorticism, inborn errors of metabolism (ie, storage diseases and urea cycle disorders), infection or iatrogenic hypoglycemia were negative. An inappropriately high serum insulin level was noted in the face of marked hypoglycemia. The insulin:glucose ratio was 0.44 (<0.3) and the amended insulin:glucose ratio was 1268 (<30). Thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography did not identify a cause for this elevated insulin level. Stabilization with a low, but adequate, blood glucose occurred with corticosteroid therapy, with further significant improvement with the addition of diazoxide. Peripheral neuropathy developed several months later, and concerns for quality of life led to humane euthanasia approximately 1 year after the initial diagnosis. Insulin levels remained high at the time of euthanasia. Necropsy found no gross lesions, though microscopic degeneration of the sciatic nerve and subjectively mildly increased size and number of pancreatic islets was noted. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism.

In conclusion, this is the first reported case of congenital hyperinsulinism in a cat and may parallel the diffuse form of hypoglycemic hyperinsulinism reported in humans and a single dog. It should be considered a differential diagnosis in kittens presenting for refractory hypoglycemia.

Monday, 05 December 2022 12:04

Infections by Sarcocystis spp in cattle

portrait cows red jersey stand 260nw 1855312099Infections by Sarcocystis in cattle are ubiquitous worldwide. There is considerable debate concerning the identity of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle. Proper diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. is important to assess their economic and public health importance. Currently there are seven named species: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocysti cuzi, Sarcocysti hominis, Sarcocysti bovifelis, arcocysti. heydorni, Sarcocysti bovini and Sarcocysti rommeli. Additionally, there are unnamed Sarcocystis spp. Two species, S. hominis and S. heydorni, are zoonotic. One out of seven species (S. hirsuta, contracted from cats) forms macroscopic cysts which can be visible during carcass inspection. Current molecular characterization is based on DNA extracted from sarcocysts from naturally infected cattle because DNA was not characterized from tissues of experimentally infected cattle or feces of experimentally infected definitive hosts. Sarcocystis cruzi (transmitted via canids) is recognized as the most pathogenic species and it causes abortion, low milk yield, poor body growth, and outbreaks of clinical sarcocystosis and death. Additionally, Sarcocystis infections have been linked to an inflammatory condition of striated muscles termed bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). Cattle affected by BEM appear clinically normal. Diagnosis of BEM at slaughter occurs when inspecting the carcass surface, or once the carcass has been divided into prime cuts or quarters. Sex and breed have no apparent influence on prevalence of BEM. The condition evidently occurs with equal frequency in steers, cows, and heifers. Virtually all striated muscles can be affected including skeletal muscles, the muscles of the eye, larynx, and the heart. In the USA, regulations require condemnation of BEM-affected parts, or (in severe cases) the entire carcass. These aesthetic considerations result in economic losses. Cattle experimentally infected with Sarcocystis have not shown BEM at slaughter.

The aim of this study was to review the status of Sarcocystis spp. and BEM in cattle including prevalence, lesions, epidemiology, and association of BEM with different species of Sarcocystis.

border terrier 930924 1280Gluten-related disorders in humans comprise different entities, including coeliac disease. Patients typically have measurable titers of anti-gliadin IgG or IgA (AGAs) and anti-transglutaminase-2 IgA (TG2). In addition to intestinal symptoms, human patients often show various neurological complications. In dogs, the neurological manifestation is rarely reported.

The present study  describes the muscle and nerve biopsies of an 11-year-old, male Border Terrier presenting with lower motor neuron signs submitted for histological examination. Examination of the biopsies showed an oligofocal lymphohistiocytic and plasmocytic myositis and a diffuse neuropathy of mixed nodo-paranodal and demyelinating type. Suspecting a neuromuscular form of breed-related gluten hypersensitivity, measurements of AGAs and TG2 antibodies were performed. Both titers ranged above control values. Hence, a gluten-related neuromyopathy was diagnosed. A gluten-free diet was prescribed and a complete disappearance of clinical signs was observed. Gluten-related disorders should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with intestinal and neuromuscular signs.

Dog and CatAmong several environmental factors, exposure to antimicrobials has been in the spotlight as a cause of profound and long-term disturbance of the intestinal microbiota. Antimicrobial-induced dysbiosis is a general term and includes decreases in microbial richness and diversity, loss of beneficial bacterial groups, blooms of intestinal pathogens and alterations in the metabolic functions and end-products of the microbiota. Mounting evidence from human and experimental animal studies suggest an association between antimicrobial-induced dysbiosis and susceptibility to gastrointestinal, metabolic, endocrine, immune and neuropsychiatric diseases. These associations are commonly stronger after early life exposure to antimicrobials, a period during which maturation of the microbiota and immune system take place in parallel. In addition, these associations commonly become stronger as the number of antimicrobial courses increases. The repeatability of these findings among different studies as well as the presence of a dose-dependent relationship between antimicrobial exposure and disease development collectively require careful consideration of the need for antimicrobial use. There are limited studies are available in dogs and cats regarding the long-term effects of antimicrobials on the microbiota and subsequent susceptibility to diseases.

This review discusses the effects of antimicrobials on the gastrointestinal microbiota and the most important associations between antimicrobial-induced dysbiosis and diseases in humans, dogs, and cats.

Flamant rose. Famille des PhoenicoptÈridÈs. Ordre : PhoenicoptÈriformesThe greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is often maintained in managed care. Although values for plasma concentrations of minerals and vitamins have been published for this species, limited studies investigate the effects of diet changes on these values.

Plasma concentrations of selected vitamins (A [and the provitamin A carotenoid β-carotene] and E), minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, inorganic P, Se, and Zn), and total protein (TP) were measured in a zoo collection of greater flamingos in November 2018 (n = 48) and in November 2019 (n = 52), 30 d after a change from the summer diet, which was the same in both years, to different winter diets. Chloride, cholesterol, and triglycerides were only measured once in 2019. The nutrient profiles of the two complete diets (labeled and analyzed) differed considerably, especially for the canthaxanthin concentration.

hepatic disease in dogsThe aim of this study was to report outcomes following surgical treatment of hepatic abscessation in dogs.

Records from 6 institutions were evaluated for dogs undergoing surgical treatment for hepatic abscessation between 2010 and 2020. Signalment, clinical signs, medical therapy, surgical treatment, and postoperative outcome was obtained from medical records. Long-term outcome was recorded when possible. Median survival time was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.

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