Articles available: 151

CONTINUING SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION IN VETERINARY MEDICINE

Antonio Maria Tardo Med Vet PhD Student

Antonio Maria Tardo Med Vet PhD Student

Sunday, 13 November 2022 13:04

Clinical Scoring Systems in the Newborn Calf

GRT MA10 newborn calf in straw i 1A scoring system is an instrument that enables the scorers, including farmers, technicians, and veterinarians, to adopt a systematic approach for diagnosis or monitoring, as it decreases bias and confounding and increases objectivity. Practically, it is a number assigned to a patient that correlates with a probability that a diagnosis can be confirmed or that a specific outcome will follow. This article examines the clinical scores designed or adapted to bovine medicine that aim to assess newborn calf viability and to diagnose and monitor neonatal calf diarrhea and respiratory diseases, helping the clinician promptly recognize calves needing medical assistance.

Despite the large number of clinical scores described in the literature, these are still barely used in farm animal practice; possibly, the complexity of the scores and missing recommendations for intervention are reasons for their lack of popularity as well as the crosswise lack of consistency among scores designed for the same purpose. Further research is needed in this regard to increase scores validation and encourage their application in bovine calf neonatology.

depositphotos 44037361 l 2015 origThe Objectives of this study was to provide a description of primary idiopathic immune-mediated polyarthritis, including long-term outcome and relapse rates, for dogs starting treatment with corticosteroids alone or corticosteroids with a second immunosuppressant.

Medical records were reviewed between January 2012 and December 2017 to identify dogs diagnosed with primary immune-mediated polyarthritis. Data including signalment, clinicopathological findings, type and duration of treatment, relapse and outcome were recorded.

ecocardio gatto toxoIn this report, the authors provide detailed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic descriptions of two Toxoplasma gondii-positive cats diagnosed with transient myocardial thickening (TMT) and acute myocardial injury (MI). In both cases, aetiological diagnosis was based on the antibody screening test (all cats had IgM titres ⩾1:64) and MI was demonstrated by a concomitant severe increase of the serum concentration of cardiac troponin I (5.1-23.6 ng/ml; upper hospital limit <0.2 ng/ml). In both cats, TMT and MI were aggravated by left atrial dilation and dysfunction, as well as congestive heart failure. In one cat, atrial standstill was also documented, while the other cat showed an intracardiac thrombus. Both cats underwent an extensive diagnostic work-up aimed at excluding additional comorbidities that could contribute to able to contribute to TMT and MI, and received appropriate antiprotozoal (ie, clindamycin) and cardiovascular therapy (eg, furosemide, pimobendan and clopidogrel). This was followed by a simultaneous decline in T gondii serology titres, normalisation of troponin level and the resolution of clinical, electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities. In the light of these results, therapies were interrupted and subsequent controls ruled out any disease relapse.

In conclusion, although T gondii represents an often-cited cause of myocarditis in feline medicine, the existing literature on the demonstration of T gondii-associated cardiac compromise in cats is extremely limited. Accordingly, this report provides a useful contribution to pertinent scientific literature since it describes TMT and acute MI in two T gondii-positive cats.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA         Despite the paucity of published literature on elasmobranch hematology and biochemistry, great interspecific diversity has been observed.

Blood samples from 43 undulate rays (Raja undulata) (23 males, 20 females) hatched and raised at Oceanogràfic Aquarium, were analyzed for hematology and plasma biochemistry. Animals were divided into two age groups: 1 yr old (28 skates) and 2 yr old (15 skates). All individuals were clinically healthy on physical examination. Weight, total length, standard length, and disc width were recorded.

dog urine sampleThe aim of this study was to describe how veterinarians utilise and perform urinalyses for dogs and cats.

A survey, developed and distributed through the Veterinary Information Network, enlisted veterinarians who perform urinalyses for dogs and cats. Participants were directed to question banks based on whether urinalyses were performed in-house, by an outside diagnostic laboratory, or using an in-house automated instrument. Participants using multiple methods were directed to questions that related to the chosen methods.

MRI gattoThis multicentric retrospective study describes the clinical and MRI features and pathological studies of spinal lymphoma in 27 cats. MRI characteristics and their possible correlations with histopathological findings were studied.

The most frequent neurological signs were rapidly progressive paraparesis (62.9%) or paraplegia (22.2%). Bimodal age distribution was found with 40.7% of cats aged ≤2.5 years (63.6% of them FeLV positive), and 44.4% of cats aged ≥8 years (16.7% of them FeLV positive). Spinal lymphoma was generally presented on MRI as an ill-defined epidural focal lesion with moderate to severe spinal cord compression, expanding more than one vertebral body. MRI lesions were typically localized in the lumbar vertebral segment (p = 0.01), circumferential to the spinal cord (p = 0.04), hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences (p = 4.3e-06), and isointense on T1-weighted sequences (p = 8.9e-07). The degree and pattern of contrast enhancement were variable. When follow-up MRI studies (n = 4) were performed after treatment new lesions of similar nature but different localizations and extension were observed. Antemortem diagnosis was achieved in 22/27 (81.5%) cats. The presence of necrosis in histopathological studies as an unfavorable prognostic indicator of survival was significantly more probable when lesions were not hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences (p = 0.017).

DawnTebbs Endurance Riding 1This study aimed to evaluate if exercise-induced acute phase response (APR) occurs in endurance horses in response to the race.

The study included 23 horses competing in an endurance competition with a successfully passed clinical examination before the race. Blood samples were collected before the start and within 30 min after the end of the race. Haematological and biochemical tests were performed and correlated to acute phase biomarkers changes.

Sunday, 13 November 2022 12:44

Canine and feline P-glycoprotein deficiency

image assetIn 2001 the molecular genetic basis of so-called "ivermectin sensitivity" in herding breed dogs was determined to be a P-glycoprotein deficiency caused by a genetic variant of the MDR1 (ABCB1) gene often called "the MDR1 mutation." We have learned a great deal about P-glycoprotein's role in drug disposition since that discovery, namely that P-glycoprotein transports many more drugs than just macrocyclic lactones that P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport is present in more places than just the blood brain barrier, that some cats have a genetic variant of MDR1 that results in P-glycoprotein deficiency, that P-glycoprotein dysfunction can occur as a result of drug-drug interactions in any dog or cat, and that the concept of P-glycoprotein "inhibitors" versus P-glycoprotein substrates is somewhat arbitrary and artificial.

This paper will review these discoveries and discuss how they impact drug selection and dosing in dogs and cats with genetically mediated P-glycoprotein deficiency or P-glycoprotein dysfunction resulting from drug-drug interactions.

CatThe aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy for 2 smartwatches with oximetry technology and optical wrist heart rate (HR) or single-lead Electrocardiography (ECG) technology (Fenix 5X Plus [GF5xp], Garmin Ltd and Apple Watch 6 [AppW6], Apple Inc, respectively) versus reference methods (ECG and transmittance pulse oximetry [TPO], respectively) in measuring HR and peripheral oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2) in cats.

10 male client-owned cats aged 8 to 12 months and weighing 3.2 to 4.5 kg were included. All cats that were presented for elective castration at the Atatürk University Animal Hospital between March 10 and April 15, 2022, were considered for enrollment. Monitoring of HR and SpO2 during anesthesia was performed with a 3-lead ECG and transmittance pulse oximetry, respectively, connected to a multiparameter monitor (reference methods) along with a GF5xp and a AppW6. Agreement between reference methods and the smartwatches were assessed by the Bland-Altman plot.

investigating hypoglycaemia in dogs and catsThe most common pancreatic tumour in dogs is the insulinoma. Canine insulinomas are considered to be malignant in more than 95% of the cases because they almost always tend to metastasise. The diagnosis of an insulinoma requires the demonstration of the simultaneous occurrence of hypoglycaemia and blood insulin levels that are within or above the high end of the reference interval. The staging of canine insulinomas is preferably conducted by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. In general, surgical treatment is the most effective because of it results in long survival times, but many dogs also require medical treatment at some point. The prognosis of canine insulinomas is guarded as clinical hypoglycaemia almost always returns due to metastasis or tumour regrowth.

This review aims to provide a summary and update the current recommendations in the veterinary literature for the diagnosis, treatment and prognostication of canine insulinomas.

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